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Garamantes an ancient forgotten people of the Sahara desert and descendants of the Tuareg from Fezzan

Garamantes an ancient forgotten people of the Sahara desert and descendants of the Tuareg from Fezzan

Dimitris Simeonidis
28 May, 2024

We get the information about the Garamantes from Herodotus (484 BC - 425 BC) who is the first to tell us about this forgotten civilization in his stories. Then we have Lucian 125 (AD-180 AD), also Dionysius the Traveler (2th century AD) and Strabo (64 BC-24 AD) the geographer. We also have a few others but the main one is Herodotus. We also have testimonies from the first Roman Geographer Pompinius Mela which we only know that he died in AD 45. And of course also from Pliny the Elder.



Muammar Gaddafi liked to emphasize the relationship between his country and sub-Saharan Africa. However, he was far less interested in celebrating the African culture that flourished for more than 1.500 years within what is now the Libyan border, and was largely ignored under Gaddafi.

Now, however, researchers dealing with the Garamandes—a "lost" Saharan civilization that flourished long before the Islamic period—hope that Libya's new government will restore the warrior culture mentioned by Herodotus (Stories, D, 174), in his rightful place in the history of Libya.

While the impressive Roman ruins at Sabratha and Leptis Magna – both World Heritage Sites – are well known, Libya's other culture, that which coexisted with the Roman colonists, has been forgotten.

New research has brought him back to the fore, which (with the help of satellite images) supports the view that the Garamantes civilization was much more important than previously thought. The research confirms Herodotus' view that the Garamantes were a very great people.

Inhabiting an area around the most important ancient trade crossroads of the Sahara, the Garamantes developed their settlements in three parallel zones of oases, known today as Wadi al-Ajal, Wadi ash-Shati and Zuwila-Murzuq-Burjuj with the capital Jarmah.

They were avid builders of underground arcades, like Gaddafi. But while Gaddafi dug up the earth to build vast, labyrinthine bunkers, the Garamantes pumped underground water to irrigate their crops.

The Garamantes relied heavily on sub-Saharan African labor, slaves, to build and sustain their culture. In fact, it is believed that they traded slaves as a commodity for the luxury goods they imported.

In a magazine article Libyan Studies, co-authored by Professor David Mattingly of the University of Leicester, claims that the discoveries show that flourishing trade in the Sahara existed long before the Islamic period.

Despite the recognition by more and more scholars of the importance of Libya's lost civilization, Gaddafi showed little interest in these developments. "We know that the material we were preparing for the Libyans was going all the way to Gaddafi's office," says Mattingly, who has spent most of the past decade researching the archeology of the Garamantes culture. “However, nothing was ever happening. He was not interested and there was no mention of the Garamantes in the Libyan school curriculum."

All that will change, Mattingly hopes, as new evidence comes to light that will document the scope and importance of the Garamantes culture.

Occupying an area of ​​some 250.000 square miles, the Garamantes, who Herodotus vividly describes as "backsliders", who hunted the Ethiopian Troglodytes from their chariots, as we now know, had invented ingenious agricultural methods.

But the very survival of the desert civilization was based on the use of underground water-pumping galleries - known as foggara to the Berbers, one of the peoples from whom the Garamantes came - whose construction required hard labor and a large number of slaves.

The culture of the Garamantes was unique. Their development is thought to mark the first time in history that an arid region (an area without a river, that is) in the middle of a vast desert was inhabited by a complex organized society that planned its cities and imported luxury goods.

In fact, the sophisticated buildings of the Garamantes - as well as their fortifications - may have been copied by the Romans, whose fortresses in North Africa bear a surprising resemblance to the former.

“Our latest work, in which we used satellite technology, revealed hundreds of new villages and towns. It's shocking," Mattingly says. "The most important thing is to realize that this was a settled agricultural culture that existed in the center of the Sahara." “We also know that the Garamantes traded. Every year, there were caravans with hundreds of camels.”

Mattingly believes that if the place of the Garamantes culture in African history was downplayed by the ancients, despite being mentioned by Tacitus and Pliny, this fact is explained by the dominant Roman-centric, colonialist view of ancient history.

Descendants of the Garamantes who live in the area to this day are the Tuaregs who have obvious differences in their culture and philosophy from the other Arab peoples.
In Greek mythology we read that the god Apollo went to  Samaria (in Crete) to be purified by the great priest and healer  Carmanora, for his murder Python to Delphi. There o Tarreos  Apollo fell in love with the Minoan nymph Akakallida. Enchanted by her beauty, the god of Light did not break the day on time, but remained in her arms. It was the longest night the world has ever known. Then she herself conceived and gave birth to the twins Philandros and Phylakides. They were exposed as infants to die, but survived by being fed goat's milk / kri-kri. Now adults, they built the city of Elyros, which had Tara as its port. Specifically, Pausanias informs us that the Elyrians later sent to Delphi a bronze goat that nursed Philandros and Phylakides with its milk. 
The princess of Crete, Acallis, it seems that she continued her relationship with Apollo, as we are also informed about other children she had with him: In Garama, Miletos, the Ambitheme and Oxus, whom the nymph bore in Libya.  Many times Garamas  is identified with Amphithemis. 
He confirms the above in his work
 Etymologiae, The Isidore of Seville. 



At Greek mythology with the name Akakallida (Akakallis) the following three persons are mentioned:

  1. His daughter Minosand Pasiphae, which according to Apollodorus Library[1] was called Acalli and she was the daughter of Crete and the granddaughter of Asterius. Her son with god Mercury, was the Kydon, who built the city of Kydonia (ta Chania, while Bakers they claimed that Kydon was the son of Tegeates who had migrated to Crete with a group of his fellow citizens. According to another version, Akakallis had 4 children with the god Apollo, which were the MilotosAmbithemisGaramas and Oak. The first and the last gave their names to the respective cities.
  2. Nymphof Crete, with whom Tarraeus consorted Apollo at the priest's house Carmanora, close to the beach town Tara or Tarva, whereupon Akakallida conceived and gave birth to the twins Philander and Phylakides[2]. They were exposed as infants to die, but survived by being fed goat's milk. Now adults, they built the city Elyro, which had Tara as its port.
  3. Prehistoric deity for Nature. There is no relevant information, except for some inscriptions on caveof Psychro, on Mt Network of Crete.}"



At Greek mythology ο Garamas he was the son of god Apollo and her princess Crete Acallis, who was his daughter Minos and Pasiphae. Garamas had three half-brothers, SpeechlessAmbitheme and Oxo, the first and last of whom gave their names to respective cities. Many times Garamas is identified with Amphithemis (Apollonius, D 1494 and Comments). In his "Libyans" besides Agrotou Garamas is mentioned as a lover of many Nymphs and father of a whole series of heroes who gave their names to African peoples.

According to Hesychius, the Narcissus flower is called in Cretan akacallis, while according to Eumachus the Corfu Akakallida Fisi calls the daffodil and rattlesnake... (Athenians 681.5). Dioskouridis (1.89.1) informs us that the water lily was the fruit of a bush ... born in Egypt, as compared to the fruit of myrrh.  
 Nikos Stampolidis, Antipoina. "Contribution to the study of morals and customs of the geometric-archaic period", Eleftherna III.3. Rethymnon: University of Crete Publications, 1996, p. 111. 

Pausanias informs us that the Elyrians...
"…goat Delphi sent copper, give it to the children or let them "Fylakidis and Philandros milk" and give them the Elyrians like Apollo, and they are Hahaha Klidos nymph, be related to Akakallidi Apollo in the city of Tara and I live in Karmanoros..."
(…they sent one to Delphi goat bronze who nursed Philandros and Phylakides with her milk. These children were born, according to the Elyrians, from Akakallida and Apollo who had met in Carmanora's house in the city of Tarra...)

(Pausanias, 10,16,5)

In  famous  book  of  "THE  UNKNOWN  SERIOUS"  ο  American  researcher  Robert Temple  (professor in the Department of Humanities, History and Philosophy of Science at the University of Louisville in the USA, professor in the Department of History and Philosophy of Science at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, Senior Research Fellow at the Institute of Archaeological Sciences of the Aegean, in Alexandria in Egypt and Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society of London), makes extensive reference to the Garamandes or Gamphasantes, whom he calls immigrant Greeks from Lemnos, (page 322, Greek translation). 
Berberia or Barbaria was the name given to the northern coast of Africa along the Mediterranean Sea, extending south to the oasis of Fezzan, an area inhabited by the Garamantes. There was also Ethiopian Barbary at the NE end of ancient Ethiopia, on the shores of the Red Sea. The name Berbers or Barbarians is not a national name for the natives whom the Greeks called Libyans and whose origin remains unknown.  
The French Academician Gaston Boissier maintains that there was a bold, imaginative race, scattered everywhere, in Africa as elsewhere, who doubted nothing and knew everything...they were the Hellenes (Great Greek Encyclopedia of Pyrsos, entry Berbers).

In  book  of  (D,179),   Herodotus  he says  that  ο  Jason  and  The  Argonauts   they founded  in  Libya  100  Greek  cities.


It is interesting alphabet of the "Berber" peoples, which is called tifinaghe and it does not resemble the Arabic alphabet. Their language is Tamashek. This "Berber" language, which is based on the Tifinag script, is also widely used by the other Berbers in Algeria, Morocco and Mauritania.  It contains many Greek letters, such as "E", "L", "S", "Θ", "P", etc.

The symbol on the flag of these peoples to this day is the two inverted epsilons, which they pronounce as Yaz or Aza and write it with the letter Z. (Tifinagh, Wikipedia).

So what happened to this culture? In the end, it seems that the Garamantes exhausted the possibilities of exploiting their environment.

In the six centuries they flourished, the Garamantes pumped an estimated 30 billion gallons of water through their system of foggara.

By the 4th century, however, water supplies began to run out, and to dig deeper and farther in search of new water sources would require more slaves than the Garamante military force could bring.

So they reached an upper "water limit". When they got over it, the Garamantes—that very great people—were doomed to decline..


The genetics of the descendants of the Garamantes

Translated from English by Dimitris Symeonidis

The Tuareg are a semi-nomadic pastoralist people of northwestern Africa. Their origin is still a matter of debate due to the scarcity of genetic and historical data. Here we report the first data on the genetic characterization of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of a sample Tuareg by Fezzan (Libyan Sahara). A total of 129 individuals from two villages in the Acacus region were genetically analyzed. Both the hypervariable regions and the coding region of mtDNA were investigated. A phylogeographic survey was carried out in order to reconstruct human migratory changes in the central Sahara and shed light on the origins of the Libyan Tuareg. Our results clearly show low genetic diversity in the sample, possibly due to genetic drift and a founder effect related to the separation of the Libyan Tuareg from an ancestral population. In addition, the maternal genetic pool of the Libyan Tuareg is characterized by a significant "European" component shared with the Berbers that can be traced to the Iberian Peninsula, as well as a small "sub-Saharan" contribution that is probably linked both to East Africa as well as with Near Africa. Eastern populations.

The Tuareg of Fezzan are almost certainly the remnants of what classical writers described as the Garamantes. Spitton covers most of the important points. Note that mtDNA is a very small piece of the overall picture of a population's ancestry, and because it only passes through ~1/2 of the population, the long-term effective population is even smaller than most loci (and therefore subject to greater genetic bias). Interestingly, the greater proportion of sub-Saharan African ancestry among the Tuareg of the western Sahara gives one a sense of the relative importance of the various trans-Saharan trade routes in a quantitative sense.






Η   Tuareg flag with the double  E of Delphi Are they Greek?

 flag of the tuareg people flag of azawad sticker vinyl die cut decal 2 inch

The  Ancient greek  double  eh  a  ancient  symbol  of  Greek  people,  is located  today  in  flag  of  peoples  of  Sahara,  of  Tuareg.  REMINDER:  In  book  of  (D,179),   Herodotus  he says  that  ο  Jason  and  The  Argonauts   they founded  in  Libya  100  Greek  cities.  Libya  they called  The  Ancient Greek  all  the  Africa  except  of  lane  of  Nile,  which  it was  η  Egypt.

Η  area of ​​Tuareg expansion

The Tuareg (Tuareg), he is one Berber nomadic people central and southern Sahara and in his department Sahel in the west Africa

  The name "Tuareg" is Arabic and means  "wanderer",  "forsaken by the gods"    Otheroι  however  support,  that the word comes from Plate, a city in the southern region of Libya on Fezzan and that the Tuareg is the resident of this city.

The Tuareg themselves do not particularly like this name and prefer to use the term «Imashaghen" the Imohag,  meaning "free". 

The Tuareg (Tuareg), he is one Berber nomadic people central and southern Sahara and in his department Sahel in the west Africa.. The Tuareg, also known as "people of the blue veil" or "blue people" from the characteristic blue cloths with which they protect their faces from the desert sand,  they number about six million and spread over the whole extent of the Sahara:  Niger, yes, Burkina Faso, Algeria, Libya. 


Among the Tuareg the rule of covering the person who imposes the Islam it is reversed, and so men are the ones who cover their face, leaving only their eye area uncovered, as opposed to women who do not. This serves, not only for reasons of keeping traditions, but also to protect them in their movements, from the sandstorms that reap the Sahara, but it is also an "insulating" solution against the unbearable heat and the hot desert sun, even if it alienates the Europeans. They are also called blue people, because over the years their skin begins to dye when they often wear clothes dyed with the characteristic indigo Colour.

 360 F 586615496 0Gn7qRK1kCFL4FuR8yznxMftVc7c3aod images 2 1

On the other hand, women wear a skirt and two wide tunics on top. The first is usually white and the second black or reddish. Above the tunic they now wear a red cloak that they wrap around their body. The black veil they wear on their heads leaves their faces completely uncovered.

The main occupation of the Tuareg is the trade of salt, dates and various handicraft products. They usually feed on products that their animals produce and that they find in the oasis

Then and on music they display a peculiarity with the combination of percussion and chants that manages to hypnotize the listener. The women of the tribe play a single-stringed musical instrument the Imsand. Their dance is Gwentra, a seated dance since their scenes do not allow any other kind of movement.

They still allow premarital relations and this results in women marrying at an older age than is usual for the regions. Women have the right to be educated and know their own script which is taught from mother to daughter.

It is noteworthy that prenuptial agreements are also allowed and are a common practice, while in the event of a divorce the woman is the one who keeps the tent and the animals. In fact, in many cases women make the decision to divorce.

It is not exactly considered a matriarchal society since the men, regarding politics, are the ones who make the decisions but rather the women move the strings in the background. The hospitality of the Tuareg is considered monumental and travelers who meet them are greeted with the honor of a king.

In the 5th century BC, the father of history, Herodotus recorded that the region of Libya was inhabited by a tribe known as the Garamantes. According to speculations this ancient people is the one from which the Tuareg are descended.

Their well-known history begins with the amalgamation of various Berber tribes. In 400 AD they settled in the Sahara under her guidance Queen Tin Heenan. In the 7th century when the Arabs conquered Northwest Africa, the Tuareg began their movement southwest. They arrived over the centuries, in Niger around the 11th century. In fact, Timbuktu, the spiritual center of the Muslim world at the time, owes its foundation to the Tuareg.

In the 14th century they turned to the Islamic faith which remains their religion to this day. At this point the position gave them the opportunity to participate in the Trans-Saharan trade and gave them an economic comfort.

At the height of their trade, in the 20s and 30s, caravans consisted of 20.000 camels.

Their decline began gradually after colonialism and the French occupation, which imposed heavy taxation and compulsory conscription into the French army on the Tuareg. Most important was the exploitation of Tuareg labor and resources. They began to rebel against the French but failed to gain their autonomy.

Η collapse of colonialism and the drawing of the borders of the countries of Africa, resulted in the Tuareg being dispersed and completely cut off from the states that were formed. They turned against the state of Mali this time but again the rebellion was put down.

In the 70s, this time in Niger, they again failed to integrate into the state, while the revival in the 90s of the conflict with Mali again did not have a happy ending. Many times the conflicts between the Tuareg tribes-groups played an important role in the failure of the peace negotiations.

In 2012 the National Liberation Movement of Azawad, a Tuareg component in Mali declared the region's independence. Azawad is a region considered the natural birthplace of the Tuareg.


It's made of Sunni Muslims (loosely) in religion, but they retain many pre-Islamic customs and traditions such as the many amulets they wear, especially women.

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Their main language is Tamashek and Berber this language is based on scripture Tiffinag, which is also widely used by the rest of the Berbers in AlgeriaAt Μαρόκο and Mauritania. Linguistically it belongs to Afro-Asian family where the rest of the Berber dialects also belong.

Tifinagh alphabet

The  traditional  alphabet  of  Tuareg.  The  foreigners  This makes it a perfect choice for people with diabetes and for those who want to lose weight or follow a balanced diet.  they call  "Phoenician"  but  a  careful  examination  (where   not  done)  shows  that  is  a  development  of  Greek  Linear  writing  B.  The alphabet  it is called tifinaghe and it does not look like the Arabic alphabet. Their language is Tamashek. THE  language  she,  που  is based on the Tiffinag writing,  it is also widely used by the other Berbers in Algeria, Morocco and Mauritania.  It contains many Greek letters, such as "E", the  double  eh  the "L", the "S", the "T", the  Th,  "P", et al.

  Imagine  a  Greek  UNIVERSITY,  a  university school,  some  researchers  and  explorers,  what  will  they could  to  they do.     

LUCIAN:  in the work of Lucian, which is written as Philopatris, there is the phrase: "and you count as Nicomachus the Gerasenian", that is, "you understand mathematical concepts like Nicomachus from Gerasa".

The ancient Greeks seem to have called the entire African continent Libya. In Roman times they used to use the name Africa. At the time of the Byzantine Empire, the name Libya was preserved without specific boundaries, later it prevailed that only the specific country of North Africa was called Libya.
Berberia or Barbaria was the name given to the northern coast of Libya (Africa) along the Mediterranean Sea, extending south to the Fezzan oasis, an area inhabited by the Garamantes. There was also Ethiopian Barbary at the NE end of ancient Ethiopia, on the shores of the Red Sea.

The eastern side of Libya is called Cyrenaica after Cyrene, daughter of the king of the Lapiths Hypseus. Apollo saw her at Pelion and carried her in a golden chariot to Libya. Their son was Aristaeus, the best of all the gods.


In Greek mythology, Garamas was the son of the god Apollo and the Cretan princess Akalli, who was the daughter of Minos and Pasiphae. Garamas had three half-brothers, Miletus, Amphithemis and Oxus, the first and last of whom gave their names to respective cities. Many times Garamas is identified with Amphithemis (Apollonius, D 1494 and Commentaries). Moreover, in the "Libyka" of Agroitos, Garamas is mentioned as the lover of many Nymphs and the father of a whole series of heroes who gave their names to African peoples.

Garamas became a renowned hero of the Garamantes, one of the tribes of the Berber tribes who lived in the eastern oases of the Sahara, in Libya. It is believed that the Garamandes or Garamandes or with another name Gamphasandes started from Thrace and Lemnos or from Asia Minor, after the Trojan War, they passed through today's Libya, occupied the oasis of Djado (Shiva), where the oracle of Ammon Zeus was, of the Despot of Olympus and spread throughout the Sahara. Many Garamantes intermingled with the negro natives of the southern bank of the Niger, adopted their language, and imparted to them much knowledge of the Greeks and Egyptians. The Upper Niger region is the homeland of the Negro Dogon tribe, which Robert Temple wrote is a tribe of negroized Greeks.

Click to listen to their music





An oasis in its segment Sahara belonging to the province of Fezzan

By name Fezzan (the ancient PheasantBerber: ⴼⵣⵣⴰⵏ, Arabic: فزان, Latin: Phazania) the southwestern region of the modern is known Libya. Most of it is covered by desert, while between the mountains and the dry valleys, the oases were the only way of survival and the place of development of small towns and villages within the Sahara. The largest city in the area of ​​Fezzan is Sabha.

Until the 70s, the region was one of the country's three provinces, along with the Tripolitis and Cyrenaica, which were divided into smaller administrative divisions. The population of the area includes nomads Tuareg in the southwest and the Tumble in the southeast, which move between LibyaAlgeriaChad and Niger. On the contrary, in the northern part Tuareg and Tumble have settled permanently and mingled with Arabs and Berbers.


From the 5th century BC until the 5th century AD, the city-state of Fezzan was the center of the Empire of Garamant, to which he refers in antiquity to Herodotus [1], which was located between the shopping streets Carthage and its regions Sahel.

From the 17th century onwards, Fezzan, like the rest North Africa, came under her rule Of the Ottoman Empire. From 1911, the area is occupied by Italy, but her rule is precarious until his rise fascism. Between the two World Wars, the King Idris he was the leader of the Libyan resistance against the Italian occupation. From 1943 until the 1951, Fezzan came under her control France, while the other two provinces under British administration. Finally, the 1951 the region formed part of its now official state Libya, along with the other two regions, Cyrenaica and Tripolitis.


The prisons of Tripoli and Fezzan

According to diplomatic documents of the Greek consulate in Tripoli and Fezzan, during her time Ottoman rule, at least 80 Greeks had been arrested for revolutionary action and sent to the prisons of Tripoli and Fezzan, where the Ottomans sent those they considered particularly dangerous and their transport was carried out in the utmost secrecy, and rarely did anyone get out alive.[2]


Ancient Sources:
Herodotus Hist., Historiae (0016: 001)
"Herodotus. Histories, 9 vols.”, Ed. Legrand, Ph.–E.
Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1:1932; 2; 1930; 3:1939; 4 (3rd edn.): 1960; 5:1946; 6:1948; 7:1951; 8:1953; 9:1954, Repr. 1:1970; 2:1963; 3:1967; 5:1968; 6:1963; 7:1963; 8:1964; 9:1968.
Book 4, section 183, line 4

But from Augilon for ten days another road
salt pillar and water and many fruitful palms,
according to per and in that other; and people who live in
that's all Garamantes O mighty nation,
o ἳἳὶ τὸν ἀλα ὆ν επιφορεόντες thus sow.

Herodotus Hist., Historiae
Book 4, section 183, line 13

                                       The Garamantes not these
they prey upon the Troglodytes of Ethiopia fourfold;
for the Troglodytes are Ethiopians with feet swifter than men
anyway, in our case, for reasons given
we hear

Herodotus on the Garamantes
[4.183.1] And after another ten days' journey from Augila, another hill of salt and water, and many palm-trees bearing fruit, similar to the other hills; there live a people whose name is Garamantes, an exceedingly great nation , who carry soil and spread it on the salt and thus sow. [4.183.2] From their country to the Lotophagi the shortest distance is thirty days' journey. It is in their country that the oxen live that graze backwards, for this reason: they have their horns bent forwards; [4.183.3] and so they graze backwards, since they cannot go forwards , because their horns stick to the ground. They have no other difference from other oxen, except in this and in their skin, which is thicker and more durable. [4.183.4] And these Garamantes go out and chase the troglodyte Ethiopians with chariots drawn by four horses. Because the troglodyte Ethiopians are more club-footed than all the peoples, of those about whom information comes to us. And troglodytes feed on snakes and lizards and other similar reptiles; the language they speak is unlike any other, it is something like the screeches that bats make.
Lucianus Soph., Dipsades (0062: 054)
"Lucian, vol. 6”, Ed. Kilburn, K.
Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1959, Repr. 1968.
Section 2, line 1

                                       and the thalpos
but this and the air are fiery and fiery
Even the sand overflowed completely
the country of Tithisi.
 Garamantes only courtly beings, eustaples
and a deaf nation, a people tented by a beast
the many living things, sometimes these become wild beasts-
the winter fashions in fact, yes
obeying God, hence the lot of the fire
extinguished and the sand wetted and unripe
vaṭe genito.

Lucianus Sophie., Dipsades
Section 2, line 12

         and yet the Garamantes because the food
consumption beyond those having access to
keep straight back, making sure the sand doesn't get stuck  
He said, "I have become inflammable and needy."
as if they had been taken in the coffins and those of Apollo
after the agra.

Dionysius Perieg., Orbis descriptio (0084: 001)
"Dionysius of Alexandria. Das Lied von der Welt”, Ed. Brodersen, K.
Hildesheim: Olms, 1994.
line 217

Sixty-fourth on the Favrousians, where they lived
they are worshiping Garamantes infinite;
all the Ethiopians grazing on the island,
αὐτῷ ἐπ' Ὠκεανῷ, pymatas of the temple of Kernes.

Anonymi Geographiae Expositio Compendiaria, Geographiae expositio compendiaria (0092: 001)
"Geographi Graeci minores, vol. 2”, Ed. Müller, K.
Paris: Didot, 1861, Repr. 1965.
Section 16, line 3

[And the nation of Libya] from such and such dissensions; Da-
Radais, Perorsians, Odrangids, Mimaces, Nuvai,  
Garamantes, Derbies, Black cats, Gingers,
Nigritai, Afrikerones, Leucathiopes.

Strabo Geogr., Geographica (0099: 001)
"Strabonis geographica, 3 vols.”, Ed. Meineke, A.
Leipzig: Teubner, 1877, Repr. 1969.
Book 17, chapter 3, section 23, line 4

The d'excessive deep country of creeping
And the Libyans own Kyrenia, sorry
and they came, first the Nasamones, then
Fleas and your cats, then Garamantes· to
For the fourth year probably the Marmaridas, joining on
now in Cyrene and extending as far as Ammon.

Cornelius Alexander Polyhist., Fragmenta (0697: 003)
"FHG 3”, Ed. Müller, K.
Paris: Didot, 1841–1870.
Fragment 32, line 8

but those in Libya later than this Garamandos
Garamantes They were named, or this one from the nation.

Agroetas Hist., Fragmenta (1835: 002)
"FHG 4”, Ed. Müller, K.
Paris: Didot, 1841–1870.
Fragment 4, line 6

                                                    Do you pray?
the Garamantes, and temples are founded in them, like others
Agroitas also has history.

Apollonius Rhodius Epic., Argonautica (0001: 001)
"Apollonii Rhodii Argonautica”, Ed. Fraenkel, H.
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961, Repr. 1970 (1st edn. corr.).
Book 4, line 1494

poesi fervomenisi synidees, eἵpeto d' manir
courtier; about a hundred apples, tofr' etaroisi
duemenoi komisia, alexomenos fell down
I'm sorry, but it's not a bad thing,
Son of Phoebus Lycoreius Caphaurus
kouris t' aidoiis Akakallidos, when Minos
they brought a heavy wave to Libya, God forbid,
daughter in law; the fourth son of Phoebe
ticket, whom Amphithemin Garamadah te kikliskusin;
Amfithemis d' ar' ἔπείτα mighi Tritonidi nymphῃ;
And behold, the Nasamons teke krateron and Caphaur,
Who then Canthon ἔπεφνε πὶ ῥηνεσσιν ἑοῖσιν.


Pausanias Perieg., Graeciae descriptio
Book 2, chapter 7, section 7, line 7

                    of fact and tight bond, ἔθα
and now they call the village Phovo, those who live in Crete  
the para Carmanora prevented, but the people
who contracted a disease in Aegialia;
May the oracles of Apollo and Artemis be saved


Aelius Herodianus et Username-Herodianus gram., Rhet., De prosody catholica
Part+volume 3,1, page 265, line 13

                                                                               other day
Crete, in the city of Tarraeus Apollo is honored.


Pausanias Perieg., Graeciae description
Book 10, chapter 16, section 5, line 4

But it is among the Cretans that you see it and according to me it is a year
Elyros city; these then sent a bronze goat
Delphi, and give birth to infants, the mother of Phylakides and
Philander milk; but you, the Elyrians, feed them
Apollo is also the nymph of Akakallida, related
but he is clothed with Akakallidi Apollo in the city of Tarras
and the house of Karmanoros.

Histories (4.179.1-3)
[4.179.1] And they also tell this story, that Jason, after the Argo had been built to perfection on the shores of Pelion, loaded the tama ship, in addition to the centurion, a bronze tripod and sailed around the Peloponnese , wanting to reach Delphi. [4.179.2] And when he arrived in his ship at Malea, a north wind caught him and carried him towards Libya; and how, before he could see the land, he found himself on the shores of Lake Tritonida. As he had no way to get out of there, they say that Triton appeared and commanded Jason to give him the tripod, saying that he would show him the passage and send them back safe and sound. [4.179.3] Jason listened to him, and so Triton showed them the way out of the dry land, and he took the tripod and placed it in his temple, and then, sitting on the tripod, he prophesied and revealed to Jason's companions all future, how - what he writes does not erase—, when one of the descendants of the men who traveled with the Argo will take the tripod, then a hundred Greek cities will be built around Lake Tritonida. And they say that when the Libyans of the region heard it, they hid the tripod.

Letter - Declaration of the professor of Cairo University Al Azhar Giannis Fortunas

"Mr. Dimitris Symeonidis is admittedly the greatest, most systematic and effective researcher of Hellenism at the moment and we are happy for his continuous, thorough and documented work, with which he feeds the younger generations of Greeks all over the world with revealing works that surprise for their originality.

 Every day with each new email we become carriers of new research projects, excellent discoveries and unexpected previously unexplored aspects of Greek historiography which fills us with admiration and satisfaction since we are thus offered a multitude of important revelations that we were all previously unaware of.    

The story of the Garamantes, an undiscovered people and a great civilization in Sub-Saharan Africa, IS ONE OF THE SUBJECTS THAT SURPRISED ME AND THAT'S WHY I'M WRITING THIS NOTE:

No one has dealt with this subject nor did we even know of its existence, and I was surprised by Mr. D. Symeonides' connection of the culture of the Garamantes with ancient Greek history and prehistory, as well as with reference to historical records, ancient writers and geographers, Lucian , Herodotus, Strabo, etc., but also with a parallel reference to ancient Greek Mythology and Theology, he secures what he writes.

    Garamas is a figure of Greek mythology since, as mentioned by the princess of Crete, Akalli, it seems that she continued her relationship with Apollo, as we are also informed about other children she had with him: Garamas, Miletus, Amphithemis and Oxus , whom the nymph bore in Libya.  

In his book (D,179), Herodotus mentions that Jason and the Argonauts founded 100 Greek cities in Libya, so there were Greek peoples who were lost or assimilated over the millennia, while their alphabet contains Greek letters, such as "E ", "L", "S", "T", "P", etc.

Also Symeonides dealing with the genetics of the Garamantes proves that they are the origin of the modern Tuaregs whose flag has the double E of Delphi on their flag! For this reason, I publicly pay my respect to this great researcher and scientist, great journalist and political analyst as well as writer who has been holding high the flag of Greater Hellenism for decades! Three kisses, Dimitri!!”




gallery https://www.temehu.com/, https://www.worldhistory.org/, https://www.bradshawfoundation.com/, https://www.thestickerspace.com/, https://stock.adobe.com/, https://en.wikipedia.org/,

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