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IN THE MODERN ERA THEY REMEMBERED CLYTAIMNISTRA AFTER 2500 YEARS AND LAY OUT A RED CARPET

Dimitris Simeonidis
11 Jun, 2024
IN THE MODERN ERA THEY REMEMBERED CLYTAIMNISTRA AFTER 2500 YEARS AND LAY OUT A RED CARPET

IN THE MODERN ERA THEY REMEMBERED CLYTAIMNISTRA AFTER 2500 YEARS AND LAY OUT A RED CARPET

IN THE MODERN ERA THEY REMEMBERED CLYTAIMNISTRA AFTER 2500 YEARS AND LAY OUT A RED CARPET

Ancient Spartans

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 The Spartan army was famous not only for its incredible discipline and training but also for its innovation. For centuries he had turned his biggest flaw – his numerical constitution – into a strength. They always wore a red cloak, to cover the blood if they were wounded and to frighten the opponent.

anmadv140

Bullfights

The red color disguises and softens the violence and disgust caused by the sight of the blood of the slain bull. That is why in bullfights the crimson cape, the muleta, which is smaller than the others, is used in the third and last phase of the fight, when the animal is about to be killed, while in the two previous ones, the larger capes are golden or orange-yellow and magenta .

Finally, red may not be perceived by the bull and does not irritate it, but it does irritate the spectators of the bullfight who focus on it, raising their adrenaline levels and whatever other emotions, mainly impetuous, the color red causes in human psychology.

In conclusion, the bull, like most mammals, sees the color red completely differently than humans, confusing it with the color green due to its diplopia, an issue that, together with dyschromia, will concern us again very soon, in more detail from ' that in the past.

The reappearance of the red carpet We are transported to the 15th century AD. Studying Renaissance art, we notice that red carpets often appeared in paintings depicting kings, nobles, and even saints. At the time, red tended to be considered the color of aristocracy. And this because, especially purple, was the most expensive shade. The cochineal dye, from which it was produced, was imported into Europe from Central America. However, there is no evidence linking red carpets, at that time, with formal welcoming ceremonies. The first similar indication dates back to 1821. Upon the arrival of American President James Monroe in South Carolina, the local authorities welcomed him by rolling out a large red carpet at the port. It was a clear act of respect towards him. A few decades later, the first train carriages, where the most expensive seats were located, also began to be covered with purple carpets. This is how the English expression "red-carpet treatment" (royal treatment) was gradually established. Red was the color of aristocracy. Finally, Hollywood officially "adopted" this custom in the 1920s. For the first time in 1922, a long red carpet was rolled out at the entrance of the Egyptian Theater, where the film "Robin Woods" would premiere. This was just the beginning. In subsequent important premieres, the same tactic was followed. At the Academy Awards, the red carpeting of the floor did not appear until 1961. By 1964 it had become an institution.

The first rolling of the red carpet

AESCHYLUS

Agamemnon (900-913)

Performance in New Greek

I.N.Gryparis

Clytemnestra

900 – glorious day after evil,
running water in the street?

Joy to him, that all avoidable evil escapes!

So he deserves such greetings

even if envy is missing. the past is enough

that we shot! — Now, dear head,

get out of your car, without touching

the descent leg, which overthrew Troy.

 

Slaves, what are you standing for? I have paid the debt

to lay carpets in the street of the army?

910 Let the road be straight and purple-paved

and let the Judgment bring him to the hopeless palaces!

As for the rest, my watchful care must lead

in right end, first the god, the destinies.

 

AESCHYLUS

Agamemnon (900-913)

Ancient Text

Clytemnestra

900. well I came in from winter,
A traveler thirsty for a way.
but it is necessary to flee everywhere.
Toioisde toi nin I deserve to be added.
envy is here. because many things before bad
905 I promise. look at me now, dear friend,
Let it happen here, don't waste anything
thy foot, ὦναὶ, of Ilios the bearer.
What is to come?
pedon keleuthou stornyna petasmasin?
910 I am born a purple pore
It is a hopeless house as if it were a trial.
the other cares are not defeated by sleep
set — rightly with the gods.

 

 FUlMUc2agAArI3g

Clytemnestra

Η Clytemnestra she was his daughter I'm rocking and Ledas, her sister beautiful Helen and Dioskouro, his wife Agamemnon. Her first husband was Tantalus and she had a child by him, which Agamemnon killed. When the Achaeans had gathered with their ships at Aulis to attack Troy, Agamemnon is said to have been forced by an oracle to sacrifice his daughter, Ifigenia. Clytemnestra could not forgive him for sacrificing their own child for his campaign. During the Trojan War, he cheated Agamemnon with his cousin, Aegisthos.

When Agamemnon returned to Mycenae, the two lovers murdered him and ascended the throne. THE Orestes, however, son of Clytemnestra, avenged his father's murder by killing both his mother and her lover.

Clytemnestra in art

Her tragedy partially inspired the play "Eumenides" first written in French under the title "Les Bienveillantes" (2006) by the French-American Jonathan Little.

He dedicates a poem (in 1936) to Klytemnestra Margaret Jursenar in her book "Fires"

Agamemnon

Agamemnon (Agamemnon) he is one of her most prominent heroes Greek mythology. King of Mycenae and Argos, perhaps also sovereign of the rulers of the Mycenaean territory. However, he is considered the most important among them and the commander-in-chief on a pan-Hellenic scale of the campaign against her Troy. He was the king's son Atrea of Mycenae and Aerobic, his brother Menelaou and Inexhaustible, her husband Clytemnestra, by whom he had three daughters (IfigeniaElectra and Chrysothemis) and a son, the Orestes. On the occasion of the kidnapping by Paris of his brother's wife MenelaouHelen, Agamemnon managed to assemble a large army and fleet from all the Greek cities and campaign against Troy.

The name Agamemnon comes from the words "agan" and "memnon" which means very persistent, steadfast, strong-willed.[5] After the fall and his return from the Troy murdered by his wife and Aegisthos, her lover Clytemnestra, who in the meantime had taken power of the Mycenae.

The kingdom of Mycenae

Agamemnon's father, Atreus was murdered by Aegisthos, who seized the throne and reigned jointly with his father, Thyeste, his brother Atrea. Meanwhile, Mr Menelaus and Agamemnon fled to I'm rocking, king of Sparta, where they married his daughters: o Menelaus he married her Beautiful Helen and Agamemnon her Clytemnestra. Agamemnon and Clytemnestra had four children: a son, Orestes, and three daughters, Ifigenia, The Electra and Chrysothemida. The Menelaus succeeded him I'm rocking as its king Sparta, while Agamemnon, with the help of his brother, managed to overthrow it Thyeste and Aegisthos and regain their kingdom Mycenae. He even managed to expand his kingdom and thus became its most powerful leader Greece.

Agamemnon's family history was marred by rape, murder, incest, and betrayal, consequences of the heinous crime committed by his ancestor, Tantalum, and then because of a curse imposed on Pelops, son of Tantalus, by Myrtilo, whom he had murdered. Thus misfortune pursued successive generations of the House of Atreides, until they were propitiated by Orestes in a court held jointly by men and gods.

 

The Sacrifice of Iphigenia

When the Achaeans they started for her Troy, their fleet remained anchored in its port Avlida, as there were no fair winds for the voyage. The fortune teller Calchas revealed that the cause of this misfortune was Agamemnon himself, who in a forest of Avlis killed her deer Artemis, of the goddess of the hunt. The winds would only blow again if Agamemnon sacrificed to the goddess his own daughter, Ifigenia. Agamemnon reluctantly agreed to the sacrifice, but at the last moment Artemis removed Iphigenia's body from the altar, replacing it with a deer.

The anger of Achilles

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The Assassination of Agamemnon

During the Trojan war, Agamemnon insulted him Achilles, the greatest hero of Achaean, as he claimed the Brisida, his slave Achilles, to replace his own slave, Chrysiida, which she was forced to return to her father Golden, his priest Apollo to appease the god. His anger Achilles for Agamemnon was the subject of her epic Iliad of Homer. With her possession Troy, Agamemnon took her with him as a slave Cassandra, daughter of the king Priam. Together they returned to Mycenae, but were murdered by the Clytemnestra and her lover, Aegisthos, who then ascended the throne. Agamemnon's son, Orestes, later avenged his father's murder by killing his mother and him Aegisthos.

9662 original

 

Aegisthus

 Murder Aegisthus Louvre K320

Aegisthus in collaboration with Clytemnestra killed Agamemnon

The father of Aegisthus was Thyestes. His mother was Thyestes' daughter Pelopia; her mother's name is not recorded. After the removal of Thyestes' family from Argolis, when Atreus won the throne, the daughter found protection in King Thesprotos of Sicyon. Thyestes also fled there after the murder of his boys by Atreus, their dismemberment and the banquet that Atreus offered him with the meat of his slaughtered children. There, in Sicyon, Thyestes was united with his own daughter Pelopia. It was said that this union was the result of rape, and indeed on the altar of Athena while Pelopia was performing a sacrifice, as Thyestes had received an oracle that revenge would come from a son he would have by incest. During the rape, his sword fell, or Pelopia snatched it from him. In both versions Pelopia kept the sword and gave it to her son as something that could help identify father and son later, which it did. Another version of the myth has it that the union of father and daughter took place without one knowing the identity of the other. While Pelopia was still pregnant, Atreus married her without knowing her identity. In the version that wants the union to be the result of rape, the mother abandoned the infant as soon as it was born on the mountain, where a goat fed it with her milk, which is why the shepherds named the child Aegisthus. According to another version, the union took place, the identity of the two lovers being unknown, in the palace of King Thesprotos. In another version the child grew up in the palace as the king's stepson.

Atreus asked his sons, or Aegisthus, to find Thyestes for him and bring him to Mycenae. There he imprisoned him and had Aegisthus kill him; but Thyestes and Aegisthus were soon recognized as father and son by the sword with which the son was about to kill the father, and which was the sword that fell from Thyestes, or his snapped Pelopia, at the time of the rape. In fact, they also invited Pelopia, and then Thyestes revealed to her and Aegisthus their true identity and the ties of kinship that united them. Pelopia grabbed the sword and killed herself. With this blood-soaked sword Aegisthus sought out Atreus who found him making thanksgiving sacrifices to the gods for the death of his brother, whom he thought had been executed. He killed him, exiled the two young Atreids Agamemnon and Menelaus and reigned with his father in Mycenae. While the Trojan War was raging, Aegisthus set out to charm Clytemnestra. For some time after Agamemnon's departure, Clytemnestra remained faithful to him. Besides, the husband had planned to leave the Aedian Demodocus by her side, her adviser and his informant. She, however, quickly succumbed to the siege of Aegisthus, perhaps because she had been informed of her husband's relationship with Chryseis, perhaps out of revenge for the sacrifice of Iphigenia, perhaps out of a prompting from Nauplius who had made it his life's goal to corrupt the women of Greek generals, in order to avenge the death of Palamedes' son. Clytemnestra and Aegisthus remained together until Agamemnon's return, when, according to one version of the myth, he avenged the death of his brothers by Atreus by naming her murder of Agamemnon, son of Atreus Indeed, on the return journey after the fall of Troy, Agamemnon suffered greatly. He delayed starting from Troy in order to propitiate, in vain, the goddess Athena for the devastation caused by the Achaeans to the shrines of the gods. With favorable weather he departed from Troas, arrived at Tenedos and from there set sail for Evia. At Kaphirea many ships sank and many Achaeans were drowned by an unexpected storm. Thanks to the favor of Hera, Agamemnon and his ships were saved. But a storm drove him to Kythera, where Thyestes once reigned and now his son and lover of Clytemnestra Aegisthus, who at that time was in Mycenae and was informed of Agamemnon's return by a sentry stationed on a hill. Thus, before Agamemnon could learn anything about his kingdom, Aegisthus welcomed him and invited him to his house for a banquet. There he murdered him, along with twenty of his followers, while Clytemnestra, hidden at the time of the murder, appeared and killed Cassandra with a sword, whose body remained buried and naked in a stream next to Agamemnon's tomb

According to Aeschylus (Agamemnon, 458 BC), who probably follows Pindar (Pith. 11.17 ff.) and the older Stisihorus (7th-6th cent. BC), the assassination was organized and executed by Clytemnestra, while Aegisthus, clumsy and cowardly, boasts that he destroyed the plan motivated by the infamy that had been committed by Agamemnon's father (or grandfather), Atreus, by killing the children of his brother Thyestes and offering them as dinner to their father. For seven years he reigned together with Clytemnestra. According to the tragedy Electra of Euripides, Aegisthus, in order that the generation of Atreus would have no descendants, tried to kill Orestes and kept Electra close to him without giving her to anyone. He was finally killed by Orestes, while he was making a sacrifice to the gods - at a similar moment Aegisthus had killed Atreus. Euripides' Electra will rejoice at the fact.

Orestes

 1 images

The murder

After the murder of Agamemnon by Clytemnestra and Aegisthos, Electra fled him to Phocis, to the king Circle, who was his uncle. After years, Orestes returned to Mycenae with his friend and cousin Pylades, and avenged his father's death by killing Clytemnestra and her lover.

Erinyes, Iphigenia and the land of the Bulls

The Erinnyes however, the goddesses of revenge began to pursue him until he reached the Athens, Greece and was tried in Areo Pago, where by the vote of the goddess Athena he was acquitted. To atone, however, Orestes would have to bring to Athens the statue of the goddess Artemis from the Taurida. In the land of the Bulls, Orestes and Pylades almost sacrificed on the altar of the goddess by Iphigenia herself. After the two brothers were recognized, with a trick concocted by Iphigenia, they managed to escape from the king of the country, Thoa, and return safely to Athens.

According to the legend, Orestes married her Hermione, his daughter Menelaus and Beautiful Helen. He was king of it Argos, of Mycenae and Lacedaemon. His son was Tisamenos.

THE COLOR RED

 Red is the color of blood and danger, passion and fire, sacrifice and anger, revolution and communism. Red, in various shades, was worn by emperors and other crowned heads, red is the color of traffic signs and fire engines, of bills charged and houses of paid love. The referee shows a red card to the naughty players, red lines are drawn by those who negotiate (and sometimes step on them), red are the strawberries of Manolada, red are the loans to the banks.

The ancient word, red, already Mycenaean, homorrhizal with the other languages, survives even today, in the Red Cross, the Red Brigades, the Red Sea, the red-skinned and the red-white, in erythema (redness) but also in lythrin (red).

However, we usually say red, which is also ancient, but Hellenistic, and comes from kokos; kokos mainly meant seed, but in this case it was the eggs of an insect, called kokos the dyer, and many of which are clustered together in small balls like large lentils, the kekides or primroses, they were found attached to oaks and other trees (and at first they thought they were fruit of the trees). Since Neolithic times, the grain was used, after being dried and ground, for the preparation of red dye, and thus the word "red" from its original meaning (fabric dyed with grain, e.g. curtain of hyacinth and purple and scarlet thread, in the Septuagint translation) eventually replaced the older "red." However, the earliest occurrence of the word "red" with the meaning of color is in Menander, in Sikyon, for one who reddened: and being born red he disguised himself.

And the purple color is a more formal and deeper shade of red, and it also owes its name to an animal: to a shell-bearing mollusc that was used to prepare the color, the purpura, which produced from its gland the deep red pigment used for very expensive clothes of the crowned, that is why the emperor Constantine VII was called Porphyrogenitos — the word has also passed into the English purple.

We still have pyrro (the color of fire) or russo, the russet color, the color of the Russians of the Byzantine hippodrome, from the Latin russeus and unrelated to the Russians.

 

 porphyra

PURPLE

 Purple: The ancient pigment that was more valuable than gold

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Its production process was particularly time-consuming and the final product was worth its weight in gold. In 1909, its chemical composition was identified and studied by Fried Leander. Purpura is produced by the hypobranchial gland, located in the mantle cavity of some living marine organisms. That is why Homer calls the purple fabrics aliporphyra. It is possible that the dye serves as a defense mechanism, as is the case with the black ink in the octopus and cuttlefish. The color varies from blue to purple, dark red, purple. Pliny states that the most desirable shade was that which gave the impression of coagulated blood.

Baits were placed in wicker baskets to attract the molluscs. The oyster was then separated from the flesh, where the mollusk's gland is located. The whole process took 10 days. He needed 8000 gr. of mollusk meat for the preparation of 500 g. pigment. The final product was a thick liquid paint. At first colorless to pale yellow, it then acquired the famous red color with its exposure to the sun and the effect of the special enzyme "Porphyrase". Twelve thousand oysters of the species Murex Brandaris, produce as much dye as is needed to dye only the circumference of a simple garment.

 

ORIGIN

According to a mythological tradition (Polydeukis-Onomastikon I, 45) the dog of Herakles, chewing a purple mollusk, was dyed red. Observing him, the nymph Phoenice discovered the way of producing the color purple. This, according to Polydeuces, happened seven generations before the Trojan War. Other legends refer to King Phoenicus, brother of Cadmus of Thebes and Europa, who founded the city of Tyre, where the best purple cloths were made. For this reason, perhaps, the first historians of ancient Greece refer to the word Phoenix in the sense of red, but use the same word for the national name "Phoenix". They also report oysters off the coast of Lebanon. The Phoenicians, producers of Royal purple in the 1st millennium BC, were also the main merchants of purple cloth. Newer theories reject the myths and traditions that connect the name of the Phoenicians with the discovery of purple. From a linguistic point of view, it is argued that the word porphyra is directly related to the Greek verb "porphyro" which means to boil, a linguistic form of the Greek "phyro". That is, it refers to "something that is about to boil". It is known, after all, that before being immersed in the liquid dye of purple, the fabrics had to be boiled in a strong fire for several days. From an archaeological point of view, it is claimed that the inhabitants of the Aegean preceded the use of purple. The Minoans of Crete, Kythira and all the Minoan settlements in the Aegean fished for three specific types of mollusks. The royal purple cloth texts of four 13th century Linear B tablets found at Knossos, the representations of purple garments and finally the presence of Murex shells in Crete and the Aegean have given rise to support the view that the Aegeans were the pioneers.

Πηγές

Aeschylus: Tragedy of Agamemnon (900-913

Performance in New Greek I.N. Gyparis

And the ancient text.

https://el.wikipedia.org/

Purple, a precious pigment of Antiquity

Tth Dr. Lilian Karalis-Giannakopoulou, BH Expert
Professor of Prehistoric Archeology at the University of Athens

 

 

Dimitris Symeonidis JP

Research and text editing

 

 

 

gallery https://palema.gr, https://helens-daughter.livejournal.com/,  https://gr.pinterest.com/pin/77, https://www.backstage.com/, https://www.britannica.com/, https://x.com/tylermLockett, https://www.worldhistory.org/, https://en.wikipedia.org/, https://www.greekboston.com/ https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/,  

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